September 29, 2023

Science behind – Pongal and Ugadi Festival |By B.V.K.S Kasyap

India is a land of different festivals and fairs.Each festival pertains to different occasions, Some welcome the seasons of the year like Harvest,Rains,Full Moon.They may called with different names in various parts of the country.Even each state having their local festivals too.These festivals bind all together of different religions,cultures, traditions etc to celebrate.The significance, Science, motto of some important festivals explained below.

Pongal festival

Pongal is one of the most popular and important festival much celebrated by Indian states like Andhra pradesh,Telangana,Tamilnadu,Karnataka,etc., It is called with different names like Thai Pongal(Tamilnadu),Makara Sankranti(Andhra Pradesh & Telangana ),Suggihabba (Karnataka),Maghi Sankranti(Maharashtra & Haryana), Bhogali Bihu(Assam), Uttarayan(Gujarat).

We all know for any farmer harvesting is the biggest part of all his Hardwork.All the year with his cattle working day and night depending on rain & sun.

 Pongal is celebrated in 4-days long & also 3-days in telugu states According to hindu mythology it is believed to be the beginning of uttarayan-the beginning of sun’s long journey north wards.

 Pongal has a tradition where rice is boiled in a pot till it over flows, this is the exact meaning of Pongal (Spilling out). It is celebrated in the month of January between the dates of 11-16.

Significance of Bhogi:

The day starts with a Bhogi mantalu(Bonfire), Infront of house ladies draw Rangolies(Muthyalamuggulu) with a theme of Bhogi kundalu.With a special pooj Before cutting the paddy. Farmers preach the sun & mother earth by covering their ploughs and sickles with a paste of turmeric or sandal wood.In houses people used to make Dosa as breakfast.At the evening for kids used to shower with Bhogi pandlu by family members.

Science Behind Bhogi

On the day of bhogi people used to burn agriculture waste, Domestic waste,Cow dung cakes, cow ghee,chest nut tree (Thaati aakulu)leaves etc., By this people reject old belongings and welcomes new things.In telugu it is known as ‘BHOGI MANTALU’ . By inhaling this air the disease causing germs which are widely spread during winter season is to be demolished.

Significance of Sankranti

The second day of Pongal starts with muthyalamuggulu(Rangoli) by cleaning home outdoor with cattle dung wate,it is mainly seen in village surroundings. On this day farmers worship cattle, some of them take care of cattle by bathing them, polishing of their horns, painting them with Colour&decorating them with garlands of flowers around them. These procession illustrated with sannai is called as Pedda Pandaga in Telugu states.

Science Behind Sankranti

             On the day of uttarayan sun enters the zodiac sign of Makara(Capricorn)it starts moving to North. It is said that from this day which signals a change of season,the migratory birds start returning to the hills & field places in villages.

Significance of Kanuma

The Third day of the festival is Kanuma. On this day special dishes are made both veg and non veg, for Puja dishes are made like Pulihora, Moong Dal paayasam,Pongal, wheat halwa etc., During this families enjoy watching movies as a part of the unions.

As per hindu mythology there  STORY behind Kanuma festival. It is said that Lord indra – the diety of rains flooded the village out of anger and rage.Lord Sri Krishna picked up govardhana hill with his little finger and given shelter shelter to villagers, cattles etc., After seeing this, lord indra realised his mistake and withdrew the heavy rains from gokula.

On the last day of festival betting going to happen with cattle & Bull fighting (JALLI KATTU) Which is famous in Tamilnadu.

For Pongal festival son-in-laws are specially invited to be part of the family celebrations, kids and elders play with kites at grounds or on terrarce. Delicious food items are made before the festival like Ariselu made of rice flour, Jaggery laddu, Murukulu, Kajji kaayalu, chekkilalu etc., These 4 days festivals are dedicated to cows, bulls, oxen that forms a key part of the agriculture in village.

Motto of Pongal Festival

Bhogi mantalu the traditional bonfire lit at dawn of the day. Bhogi day is metaphor to look within & burn negativity in us. On Sankranti farmers thank the sun God & Lord Indra in getting better yielding crops like Rice, Sugarcane, Turmeric, Wheat etc.,.

People and farmers believe God that he will give them happiness, peace, Brightness, Prosperity& Harmony in life of their families and cattle’s.

ugadi festival


The wordUGADI’ is derived from Sanskrit word YUGA-ADI, ‘Yuga’ means Period, ‘ADI’ means the belonging of new time. On this day earth axis is in such a way that Northern hemisphere receives the highest amount of sun energy. The first day of Vasant Ritu means first day of beginning of spring season. From this day onwards trees, plants starts shedding their leaves and new growth begins with nature change.

Normally January-1st is just a change of calendar but there is no scientific or astronomical events on this day. There is scientific & Astronomical events of Ugadi festival. People who are living near to Vindhya hills can observe chandramana (Chaitra Suddha Padhyami). On this day New Hindu calendar begins (Panchangam) in this earth complete its one revolution around the sun.

It is mostly celebrated by Andhra, Telangana, Tamilnadu, Karnataka people as UGADI.It is called with different names like Gudi padwa (Maharashtra), Vish(Kerala).

Scienec Behind Ugadi Festival:

On the day of Ugadi people woke up before sunrise they take head bath with castor oil. The scientific reason behind taking castor oil bath is that northern hemisphere receives highest amount of sun energies, it is little bit in convenient for a human to adapt high temperatures, so people use a cooling agent like castor oil while taking bath.

After this home entrance is decorated with fresh mango leaves. There is another scientific reason behind this, the fresh leaves Infront of home receives the fresh air which comes inside and it creates a sense of calmness.

People wear new clothes which creates a new festive atmosphere in the family, on this day a special ‘Pachadi’ made of different ingredients, it is known as ‘UGADI PACHADI’. It is also called as ‘SHADRUCHULU’ Means 6 Tastes.

Each ingredient will have different tastes & speciality

1.Jaggery – Sweetness (It Represents Happiness)

2.Tamarind- Sourness (It Represents Digest)

3.Chilli – Hot& Spiciness (It Represents Anger)

4.Salt – Saltness (It Represents Fear)

5.Raw Mango – Tanginess(It Represents Suprise)

6. Neem bud – Bitterness (It Represents Sadness)

Science Behind Ugadi Pachadi Ingredients:

Jaggery :- It increases blood haemoglobin level, also provides energy to body. Sugarcane is raw material used for production of jaggery which helps to develop strong teeth, also fight against germs & against jaundice.

 Tamarind :- It helps in digestion of stomach from discomfort. It reduces inflammation throughout body, improves skin condition & lowers cholesterol.

 Raw Mango:- It provides relief from acidity and chest burn as well as it improves the elasticity of blood vessels and helps in the formation of new blood vessels.

 Neem :- It has anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-toxic properties. In villages to cure chicken pox& other viral fevers it is used. People call need as” Pharmacy of village “.

 The life of human being is a mixed bag of sweet, sour& sooner we learn to deal with ups & downs with stoic equanimity the bitter for us and also life is a mixture of Good,Bad,Joy,Sorrow,Success, Dissappointment, struggles etc.,.


Auspicious days like Ugadi should be used to change our way of life to purify our behaviour by giving up all bad qualities. It is a festival that teaches lessons in selfless services. In Villages,Towns, Cities mostly in temples Purohit’s explains the PANCHANGA SRAVANA about all zodiac signs. In Villages all people together near the temple to listen this.


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